Russian officials took some important steps this month towards the creation of a regulatory framework for security tokens. In the past, Russia has been on the fence of how to exactly handle the new technology. This undecidedness hurt the country’s blockchain community and slowed adoption.
Now it appears that lawmakers recognized the importance of staying relevant in the sector. Consequently, officials continue to usher in new laws pertaining to the use and ownership of digital assets. Now, Moscow wants to give its entrepreneurs the opportunity to compete on the global stage.
Legislation in the Works
Russia currently has three main crypto-related bills going into enforcement in the coming months. These bills are part of the “Open Russian Digital Economy” campaign. This campaign is about helping Russian develop alternative sources of revenue and finance through innovation.
Of the three bills set to activate in the coming weeks. Two of the bills fail to mention cryptocurrencies directly. However, the bills do cover crypto activities. The third bill does explicitly name cryptocurrencies.
Unfortunately, officials delayed the third bill three times already. This bill is known as “On Digital Financial Rights.” Many in the country consider this bill to be the most important piece of crypto legislation at this time and for good reason.
The “On Digital Financial Rights” bill finally breaks digital assets down into three categories – Virtual Assets (crypto), Technical (utility), and Digital Financial Assets (security tokens). This legislation is a critical first step to increased adoption. Primarily, it would help build confidence in the crypto economy.
Notably, the bill has seen multiple amendments since its introduction, mainly because of strong support from the local business sector and the Finance Minister. The Chairman of Russia’s Financial Market Committee, Anatoly Aksakov introduced the first two drafts of the bill on March 20, 2019.
A co-sponsored third draft of the legislation went in front of lawmakers on March 26. The bill was filed by the head of the parliamentary Legislation Committee, Pavel Krasheninnikov and the Speaker of Duma, Vyacheslav Volodin. Interestingly, this version of the bill focuses on the use of self-executing contracts, or smart contracts.
Use of smart contracts
Regnum, Russian lawmaker Pavel Krasheninnikov, head of the parliamentary Legislation Committee stated that smart contracts are very similar to reoccurring payments systems currently in place. He believes that this FinTech is essential in the development of the Russian digital economy.
Russia Central Bank Doesn’t Like Bitcoin
The main reason for the postponement of “On Digital Financial Rights” is the fact that Russia’s Central Bank is still opposed to the entire concept of decentralized cryptocurrencies.
Not surprisingly, the central bank doesn’t support any other form of currency, other than the ones it issues personally. At one point, the bank’s deputy governor, Sergei Shevtsov went as far as to call cryptos a “high-tech pyramid scheme.” The statement highlights some of the blockades the Russian cryptocommunity must overcome in order to succeed.
On Digital Rights
On October 1, the second piece of legislation – “On Digital Rights” entered into force. This is the first piece of legislation to enter service. It’s similar in nature to the “On Digital Financial Rights” legislation but differs in many key ways. Mainly, the legislation doesn’t use the word “cryptocurrencies.”
The bill established basic legal definitions in the sector and the status of each. For example, Digital Rights is now a legally recognized term in the country.
Amend the Civil Code
The new law amends the Russian civil code. The addition now states that the use of information technology is legal for the fulfillment of obligations in certain circumstances. Basically, self-executing contracts are legally binding moving forward.
ICO Laws on the Way
In January, the third crypto-related bill will go into enforcement. This bill deals exclusively with crowdfunding campaigns such as security token offerings (STO). The law is called the “On Attracting Investment Using Investment Platforms” and its ramifications are far-reaching.
Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the bill on August 2019. The new law places investor protections, as well as, restrictions in the ICO and STO sectors.
For example, unqualified investors can only invest up to 600,000 rubles ($9000) per person. This law is meant to protect uneducated investors from taking large losses. Unfortunately, it can also limit normal investors from maximizes their ROI.
The legislation will also restrict what firms can host crowdfunding events. Not surprisingly, only parties registered with the country’s central bank can engage in crowdfunding activities at this time. Basically, any STOs in Russian need the blessing of the central bank to proceed.
Not Easy Being a Russian Crypto Investor
This law showcases Russia’s efforts to allow only the elite to utilize the blockchain sector, while at the same time, making it nearly impossible for the average person to do so.
This pattern of neglect toward the civilian investor isn’t anything new. Back in 2017, Russia hinted towards banning crypto at the same time the central bank announced plans to issue its own native cryptocurrency in the coming 2 years – the cryptoruble.
Russian Association of Blockchain and Cryptocurrency
Despite the country’s history of cloudy crypto legislation, Russia continues to see further blockchain expansion. The country already has numerous firms working together to help add transparency to the sector – the Russian Association of Blockchain and Cryptocurrency.
This group provides investors with a rating system to better gauge the validity of an ICO or STO. The firm seeks to create an international standard to rate crowdfunding campaigns. In this manner, investors can accurately assess the risks associated with these investments more consistently.
Sanctions Result in Change
Russian officials took the monumental steps to further the local blockchain sector after dealing with a host of crushing sanctions imposed by the US. US lawmakers insisted on the sanctions for what they deemed as election meddling in the 2016 presidential elections.
Since the start of the sanctions, Russian President Vladimir Putin has criticized the US’s decision. He stated that the US’s move weaponized the dollar. Consequently, this strategy makes it difficult for competing countries to keep faith in the currency. Essentially, the move forced Russia to consider alternatives.
Russia Goes Crypto
Russia is now ready to turn towards blockchain solutions. The country possesses the network and technical skills to be a dominating force in the crypto sphere. Considering that the country is set to launch its own native cryptocurrency in the coming year, it makes sense that lawmakers start to promote a more blockchain-friendly business environment.
KYC/AML – Who is Proactive? Who is Under Fire?
AML (anti-money laundering) refers to the laws, regulations, and policies that are used by financial-based institutions to monitor and screen customers’ source of funds, and to ensure that the funds are obtained legally; AML acts as a deterrent for criminals wishing to hide and move illegal money.
A subset under the larger AML umbrella is KYC (know-your-client/customer). KYC is the collection of data by financial institutions to know its customers better and establish a customer profile that details a customer’s risk tolerance, financial position, and financial literacy. Documents often collected in the KYC process are notarized passports and utility bills, employment status, net worth, source and description of funds, etc. KYC is used to protect the financial institution and the customer.
While KYC/AML plays an important role in investing, not all financial institutions are equally thorough in the collection of KYC/AML data. There have been multiple companies in the digital asset industry that have come under fire for lax approaches to the KYC /AML verification process. By contrast, there are also multiple instances of companies in the digital asset industry that have taken proactive approaches.
Why are KYC and AML practices important?
While it would be nice to live in a world absent of bad actors, this is simply not reality. KYC/AML plays a role in creating safe and fair financial markets for everyone. They also provide a means of recourse against those found to be acting in bad faith.
There are drawbacks in trying to foster fair markets though – notably, a loss of privacy. Yes, honest investors may gain better safety, but they are also forced to give up vital identifying information about themselves. This is a valid concern; when giving up personal data, you are entrusting that it will be safely guarded by the receiving entity. Unfortunately, financial institutions are not immune to data breaches as recently made evident by the Canada Revenue Agency which had a breach of more than 48,500 accounts.
Despite the noted benefits of KYC/AML, there are many companies that have opted for a half-hearted approach to these practices. The following are only two recent examples in a pool of many which highlight this.
One of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world, one would assume that Binance would partake in good KYC/AML practices. This, however, is not the case in the eyes of Japanese exchange, Zaif. This lesser-known exchange is now suing Binance over its ‘lax’ KYC/AML practices. The lawsuit stems around a hack of Zaif in 2018, which resulted in roughly $60M of stolen assets being laundered through Binance – an occurrence that Zaif believes would not have occurred if the KYC/AML procedures used were up to par.
In this instance, payment processor, ePayments, went under a FINRA imposed lockdown in early 2020. While the company has remained quite tight-lipped regarding the reasoning for this, it is known that the lockdown stems from a lax approach to KYC/AML. In recent days, ePayments has provided a small update, indicating that it is commencing a platform restart soon – albeit with the discontinuation of support for cryptocurrencies – after months of overhauling its KYC/AML approach.
Learning by Example
Although there are those that have not placed enough emphasis on KYC/AML, others have watched and learned from these transgressions. The following are examples of this, showing both service development, and adoption.
This recent announcement is more than just an investment. BnkToTheFuture will be incorporating a tailor built solution by Blockpass, meant to facilitate comprehensive and efficient KYC/AML procedures.
Industry leading, Securitize, recently launched a new service, dubbed ‘Securitize ID’. This service was built to bring new efficiency to KYC/AML procedures. It essentially allows for an investor to be ‘whitelisted’ after completing KYC/AML processes through Securitize. Being whitelisted involves assigning a unique investor ID, which is then recognized by co-operating companies – meaning the process does not need to be repeated countless times.
A Growing Industry
If anything can be derived from these various examples, it is that the world of blockchain needs to take KYC/AML seriously. While there may not have been services to fit these needs at one point in time, this is no longer the case. Moving forward, expect to see increased adoption of these services tailor-built for KYC/AML, as companies look to avoid the wrath of regulators, and ensure fair markets for clientele.
Nigerian SEC Provides Clarification on Token Offerings and Digital Asset Classification
Investors continue to flock towards assets such as cryptocurrencies and digital securities as, not only a new form of currency but a hedge against global economic uncertainty. As a result, regulatory bodies around the world have had to adapt or clarify approaches towards these alternative asset classes. The latest to do so is the Nigerian Securities and Exchange Commission.
Before jumping into what a few of these approaches are, the Nigerian SEC took the time to allay fears of an unnecessarily strict approach.
“Digital assets offerings provide alternative investment opportunities for the investing public; it is therefore essential to ensure that these offerings operate in a manner that is consistent with investor protection, the interest of the public, market integrity and transparency. The general objective of regulation is not to hinder technology or stifle innovation, but to create standards that encourage ethical practices that ultimately make for a fair and efficient market.”
“The position of the Commission is that virtual crypto assets are securities, unless proven otherwise.”
By taking this stance, it removes the guesswork surrounding the treatment of digital assets. Essentially, it does not matter if an asset fails to fit the definition of a security. In order to be deemed something else, this needs to be proven to the Nigerian SEC on a case-by-case basis. Only then, with the approval of the regulatory body, can an asset be reclassified.
Where the Onus Lies
In addition to establishing its position that all digital assets are to be treated as securities by default, the Nigerian SEC elaborated on where the onus lay for those looking to change the classification of an asset.
“…the burden of proving that the crypto assets proposed to be offered are not securities and therefore not under the jurisdiction of the SEC, is placed on the issuer or sponsor of the said assets.”
Essentially, the Nigerian SEC will not be taking it upon itself to classify every asset. It is the responsibility of a tokens issuer to prove the most appropriate classification.
All Token Offerings Regulated
While the first two points of clarification maintain a focus on investors, a third was made to provide clarity to companies hosting capital generation events.
These events, which include ICOs, DSOs, and IEOs, are all subject to regulation by the Nigerian SEC. There are no forms or variations that ‘skirt’ around existing regulations. As all digital assets are deemed securities by default, this classification spills over into events meant to facilitate their sale/distribution. It is stated,
“…all Digital Assets Token Offering (DATOs), Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), Security Token ICOs and other Blockchain-based offers of digital assets within Nigeria or by Nigerian issuers or sponsors or foreign issuers targeting Nigerian investors, shall be subject to the regulation of the Commission”
In the ICO boom of 2017, companies around the world took part in these popular means of raising capital. While many were scams, there were still many well-intentioned companies that simply were not well informed. As a result, many hosted ICOs, under the impression that securities laws would not apply when this was simply not the case.
This stance by the Nigerian SEC was made in an effort to avoid this confusion moving forward. While ICOs may not be as popular as they once were, token offerings still regularly occur in the form of DSOs and IEOs.
The Nigerian SEC in its current form was founded in 1979. Much like similar regulatory bodies, it is tasked with ensuring fair and transparent capital markets through the creation and enforcement of regulations.
Chairman, Olufemi Lijadu, along with a 9 person board, currently oversees operations.
In Other News
At the beginning of today’s look at the actions of the Nigerian SEC, we alluded to similar occurrences in a variety of nations. Some of these occurrences involved real change, while others simply clarification. The following are a few examples of these.
FLiK and CoinSpark Orchestrators Charged by SEC for Fraudulent ICOs
On September 11, the SEC announced charges against FliK and CoinSpark, as well as five individuals associated with the two companies. The charges stem from two fraudulent ICOs (FliK and CoinSpark) held in 2017.
With 2020 being a disaster in many ways, it is easy to develop a short term memory of past years. Unfortunately for the bad actors that took part in past fraudulent ICOs, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) remembers.
The charges surrounding these two ICOs are various. Not only did the events represent the illegal sale and distribution of securities, but they were rife with other fraudulent activity.
- Illegal sale and distribution of unregistered securities
- Appropriating and misusing investor funds
- Market manipulation
As a result of these charges, all parties have opted for a settlement with the SEC – each of which consists of restrictions on future market participation, along with fines that range from $25,000 – $75,000 USD.
The aforementioned charges are particularly noteworthy, due to the names attached to these projects. Of the 5 individuals charged, two are well-known celebrities.
Clifford ‘T.I.’ Harris – T.I. is a rapper/actor that not only promoted, and sold FLiK tokens, but also misrepresented himself as a co-owner of the project.
Ryan Felton – Primarily a film producer, Ryan Felton was the main orchestrator behind both illegal securities offerings. The SEC took the time to comment specifically on his actions, stating, “The federal securities laws provide the same protections to investors in digital asset securities as they do to investors in more traditional forms of securities…as alleged in the SEC’s complaint, Felton victimized investors through material misrepresentations, misappropriation of their funds, and manipulative trading.”
Off the Hook?
If there is one individual that may yet rest easy, and be happy with the conclusion of this saga, it would be Kevin Hart.
When the SEC first began investigating the actions of those affiliated with FLIK, Kevin Hart was among those named. Fortunately for the superstar actor/comedian, recent developments indicate that there have been difficulties proving his involvement.
For the time being, there was no mention of Kevin Hart in the SEC’s most recent communication.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Founded in 1934, the SEC is a United States regulatory body. Its purpose is to foster fair and transparent markets, through the creation and enforcement of regulations pertaining to assets deemed securities.
Chairman, Jay Clayton, currently oversees operations at the SEC.
In Other News
When looking at some of the other high-profile cases to be settled with the SEC, news of FLiK and CoinSpark seems relatively minor. Despite this, when looking at the big picture it becomes clear that no ICOs are safe from enforcement actions by the SEC. These smaller cases discussed today are simply the latest in a long line of similar instances.
By not letting anyone ‘off the hook’, the SEC is sending a clear message moving forward that the blockchain industry needs to remain mindful of existing securities regulations, and that companies will be held accountable for their actions.